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Colliding Pandemics and CoViD-19


Lily Fotovat1 & Francesco Chiappelli1,2,*


1Dental Group of Sherman Oaks, CA 91403, USA (www.oliviacajulisdds.com); 2Center for the Health Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; Dental Group of Sherman Oaks, CA 91403; *Corresponding author: 


Francesco Chiappelli - E-mail: Chiappelli.research@gmail.com
Lily Fotovat - E-mail: lilyfotovat@gmail.com

Article Type




Received March 1, 2023; Revised March 31, 2023; Accepted March 31, 2023, Published March 31, 2023



Cases of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), and avian influenza A Virus (IAV) have increased during our current prolonged Corona Virus Disease 2019 (CoViD-19) pandemic. The rise of these viral infectious diseases may be associated or even inter-dependent with acute, latent or recurrent infection with Systemic Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV2). The nonsensical neologism 'tripledemic' was tentatively introduced to describe the confluent nature of these trends (epidemic comes from two Greek words: epi=on, about, demos=people; pandemic is also derived from Ancient Greek: pan=all, demos=people; but 'tripledemic' would derive from Latin triplus=three, Greek demos=people, and would at best signify 'three countries, three peoples', but certainly not the current threat of confluence of three, or perhaps more pandemics). Emerging evidence suggests that monkey pox and CoViD-19, among several other viral diseases, produce significant observable manifestations in the oral cavity. From a clinical standpoint, dentists and dental personnel may be among the first health professionals to encounter and diagnose clinical signs of converging infections. From the immune surveillance viewpoint, viral recombination and viral interference among these infectious diseases must be examined to determine the potential threat of these colliding pandemics. 


World Health Organization (WHO), Center for Disease Control (CDC), Systemic Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV2), Spike (S) protein, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (CoViD-19), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), fusion-associated small transmembrane proteins (FAST), monkeypox virus (MPXV), Influenza A, B & C Virus (IAV, IBV, ICV), viral surface proteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) influenza viral surface proteins, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), oral manifestations, viral recombination, viral inference.


Fotovat & Chiappelli, Bioinformation 19(3): 251-254 (2023)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.