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PROcEED: Probabilistic reverse dosimetry approaches for estimating exposure distributions



Christopher M Grulke, Kathleen Holm, Michael-Rock Goldsmith & Yu-Mei Tan*



National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA


Email; *Corresponding author


Article Type

Prediction model



Received December 19, 2012; Accepted December 21, 2012; Published July 17, 2013



As increasing amounts of biomonitoring survey data become available, a new discipline focused on converting such data into estimates of chemical exposures has developed. Reverse dosimetry uses a pharmacokinetic model along with measured biomarker concentrations to determine the plausible exposure concentrations-- a critical step to incorporate ground-truthing experimental data into a distribution of probable exposures that reduces model uncertainty and variability. At the population level, probabilistic reverse dosimetry can utilize a distribution of measured biomarker concentrations to identify the most likely exposure concentrations (or intake doses) experienced by the study participants. PROcEED is software that provides access to probabilistic reverse dosimetry approaches for estimating exposure distributions via a simple user interface.



PROcEED along with installation instructions is freely available for download from



Reverse Dosimetry, PBPK Modeling, Exposure, Biomarkers.



Grulke et al. Bioinformation 9(13): 707-709 (2013)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.