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A comprehensive analysis of amino-peptidase N1 protein (APN) from Anopheles culicifacies for epitope design using Immuno-informatics models



Renu Jakhar1, Pawan Kumar2, Neelam Sehrawat3 & Surendra Kumar Gakhar1,*



1Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak - 124001, Haryana; 2Centre for Bioinformatics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak - 124001, Haryana; 3Department of Genetics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak - 124001, Haryana



Surendra Kumar Gakhar - Email:; Phone: +91-7027666479; *Corresponding author


Article Type

Research Article



Received August 28, 2019; Accepted September 10, 2019; Published September 17, 2019



Analysis of the Amino-peptidase N (APN) protein from Anopheles culicifacies as a vector based Transmission Blocking Vaccines (TBV) target has been considered for malaria vaccine development. Short peptides as potential epitopes for B cells and cytotoxic T cells and/or helper Tcells were identified using prediction models provided by NetCTL and IEDB servers. Antigenicity determination, allergenicity,immunogenicity, epitope conservancy analysis, atomic interaction with HLA allele specific structure models and population coverage were investigated in this study. The analysis of the target protein helped to identify conserved regions as potential epitopes of APN in various Anopheles species. The T cell epitopes like peptides were further analyzed by using molecular docking to check interactions against the allele specific HLA models. Thus, we report the predicted B cell (VDERYRL) and T cell (RRYLATTQF for HLA class I and LKATFTVSI for HLA class II) epitopes like peptides from APN protein of Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) for further consideration as vaccine candidates subsequent to in vitro and in vivo analysis.



Anopheles culicifacies, amino-peptidase N, malaria, epitope, immuno-informatics



Jakhar et al. Bioinformation 15(8): 600-612 (2019)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics


License This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.