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Title

Enterotype Variations of the Healthy Human Gut Microbiome in Different Geographical Regions

Authors

Fauzul Mobeen, Vikas Sharma & Tulika Prakash*

 

Affiliation

1School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand 175005, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India

 

Email

Fauzul Mobeen - E-mail: faizgwalior@gmail.com; Vikas Sharma E-mail:vikas.sharma.biotech@mail.com; Tulika Prakash - E-mail: tulika@iitmandi.ac.in; Phone:
+91-1905-267060; *Corresponding author

 

Article Type

Hypothesis

 

Date

Received October 21, 2018; Revised November 16, 2018; Accepted November 18, 2018; Published December 29, 2018

 

Abstract

Enterotypes are used for classifying individuals based on the gut microbiome. A number of studies are available to find the Enterotypes in healthy individuals; however, most of them lack comparisons at the world level. We analyzed the healthy human gut microbiomes of 495 datasets available in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) database derived from fifteen countries from four continents. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most abundant phyla in the healthy human gut, worldwide. A high ratio of Proteobacteriato Actinobacteria and a low abundance of Prevotella were identified as the indicators of IBD. Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Bifidobacterium were identified as the Enterotypes in the inter-continental comparisons. At the intra-continental level, two (Bacteroides and Ruminococcaceae), four (Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Clostridiales), and two (Prevotella, Bacteroides/Bifidobacterium) Enterotypes were identified in the American, European, and Asian continents, respectively. In addition, a high abundance of the unknown genus of Ruminococcaeae was observed in the Colombian human gut microbiome. A substantial impact of the geographical distance was observed on human gut microbiome variations, demonstrating a cumulative effect of factors, including dietary habits, genetics, lifestyle, environment, and climate, etc.

 

Keywords

Enterotype, geographical factor, healthy human gut microbiome, inter-continental, intra-continental

 

Citation

Mobeenet al. Bioinformation 14(9): 560-573 (2018)

 

Edited by

P Kangueane

 

ISSN

0973-2063

 

Publisher

Biomedical Informatics

 

License

This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.