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Enterotype Variations of the Healthy Human Gut Microbiome in Different Geographical Regions


Fauzul Mobeen, Vikas Sharma & Tulika Prakash*



1School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand 175005, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India



Fauzul Mobeen - E-mail:; Vikas Sharma; Tulika Prakash - E-mail:; Phone:
+91-1905-267060; *Corresponding author


Article Type




Received October 21, 2018; Revised November 16, 2018; Accepted November 18, 2018; Published December 29, 2018



Enterotypes are used for classifying individuals based on the gut microbiome. A number of studies are available to find the Enterotypes in healthy individuals; however, most of them lack comparisons at the world level. We analyzed the healthy human gut microbiomes of 495 datasets available in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) database derived from fifteen countries from four continents. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most abundant phyla in the healthy human gut, worldwide. A high ratio of Proteobacteriato Actinobacteria and a low abundance of Prevotella were identified as the indicators of IBD. Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Bifidobacterium were identified as the Enterotypes in the inter-continental comparisons. At the intra-continental level, two (Bacteroides and Ruminococcaceae), four (Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Clostridiales), and two (Prevotella, Bacteroides/Bifidobacterium) Enterotypes were identified in the American, European, and Asian continents, respectively. In addition, a high abundance of the unknown genus of Ruminococcaeae was observed in the Colombian human gut microbiome. A substantial impact of the geographical distance was observed on human gut microbiome variations, demonstrating a cumulative effect of factors, including dietary habits, genetics, lifestyle, environment, and climate, etc.



Enterotype, geographical factor, healthy human gut microbiome, inter-continental, intra-continental



Mobeenet al. Bioinformation 14(9): 560-573 (2018)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.