High quality SNPs/Indels mining and characterization in ginger from ESTs data base



Mahendra Gaur, Aradhana Das & Enketeswara Subudhi*



Centre of Biotechnology, Siksha O Anushandhan University, Kalinga Nagar, Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha


Email; *Corresponding author


Article Type




Received January 07, 2015; Accepted January 29, 2015; Published February 28, 2015



Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is an important herb of the family Zingiberaceae. It is accepted as a universal cure for a multitude of diseases in Indian systems of medicine and its rhizomes are equally popular as a spice ingredient throughout Asia. SNPs, the definitive genetic markers, representing the finest resolution of a DNA sequence, are abundantly found in populations having a lower rate of mutation and are used for genomic analysis. The public ESTs sequences mostly lack quality files, making high quality SNPs detection more difficult since it is exclusively based on sequence comparisons. In the present study, current dbESTs of NCBI was mined and 38115 ginger ESTs sequences were obtained and assembled into contigs using CAP3 program. In this analysis, recent software tool QualitySNP was used to detect 11523 potential SNPs sites, 8810 high quality SNPs and 1008 indels polymorphisms with a frequency of 1.61 SNPs / 10 kbp. Of ESTs libraries generated from three ginger tissues together, rhizomes had a frequency of 0.32 SNPs and 0.03 indels per 10 kbp whereas the leaves had a frequency of 2.51 SNPs and 0.23 indels per 10 kbp and root is showing relative frequency of 0.76/10 kbp SNPs and 0.02/10 kbp indels. The present analysis provides additional information about the tissue wise presence of haplotypes (222), distribution of high quality exonic (2355) and intronic (6455) SNPs and information about singletons (7538) in addition to contigs transitions and transversions ratio (0.57). Among all tissue detected SNPs, transversions number is higher in comparison to the number of transitions. Quality SNPs detected in this work can be used as markers for further ginger genetic experiments.



Zingiber officinale, Ginger, QualitySNP, ESTs, in silico, Indels.



Gaur et al. Bioinformation 11(2): 085-089 (2015)

Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.